Methods of Literary Criticism

I have discovered some tools for the methodology of literary criticism. They are:
a) Philosophical Etymology
b) Cultural Anatomy
c) Psychological Pharmacology
d) Ontological Nebula

 
Philosophical Etymology
What is philosophical Etymology? Philosophical etymology is a cross examination of literary and cultural meanings in the light of Philosophy. It seeks to give newer shades of meaning to older thoughts. Let’s look at some examples. The school of structuralism coined that all language is made up of signs. A sign consists of the signifier and the signified. The signifier is a visual tangible thing and the signified is an idea. Let’s use an example: I blossomed in her garden. Here blossomed is figurative and an idea and hence it is the signified. Garden forms the signifier.

 
Postmodern Philosopher Derrida developed the idea of Binary Divide. A Binary Divide is a text that privileges some and marginalizes others. Let’s look at an example. It is said in an advert: Wanted only Native Speakers to Teach English. This narrative privileges Native Speakers over English spoken by the colonized people. Using the Binary Divide we can deconstruct texts.

 
From Derrida I have developed an idea called Binary Fusion. Binary fusion is a text that promotes equality. Let’s look at an advert. We do not discriminate people on the basis of gender, color or orientation. This text contains a Binary Fusion. Let’s look at another example. Black Culture, Black Gospel, Jazz and Blues are universally epitomized binary fusions of culture. A literary interpreter can analyze texts and bring out notions of marginalization and privilege and also write a narrative of Binary Fusion.

 
Then comes Kristeva’s texts of the semiotic and the symbolic. A semiotic text omits grammar and punctuation. Such a kind of text can be found in streams of consciousness narratives, in drama, film and music. A symbolic text on the other hand adheres to the strict conventions of language. Doing a literary analysis we can classify texts into semiotic and symbolic elements.

 
Form a Marxian point of view we can analyze texts by looking at class values like the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Do texts privilege the Blue Blood or monitor the interests of the working class. Does the text promote the interests of the Capitalist society? What is the dialectic materialism embedded in the text. This refers to political and historical problems created by Social tremors. The narrator can find out how various social institutions have contributed to the writing of literature.

 
Philosophical Etymology also takes a look at Feminist Theology. Do social, cultural, political and historical institutions promote gender equality and support Feminism. How are the roles of a working mother enacted in s society? Does the intrusion of masculinity affect the reading of texts? To what levels of subversion are meanings of the feminine in a text?

 
Psychological Pharmacology
Psychological Pharmacology looks at the theories of Freud, Lacan and Jung. From Freud we have the three states: ID (passion and the libido), Ego (language and culture assimilated from parents) and Super Ego (the laws of the society). While doing textual interpretation the author can find out how these mechanisms are working in a text. Texts can also be phallic and vaginal that is texts promoting the language of the feminine and the masculine. Is the language of the text phallic or vaginal?
Next I would like to take the theories of Lacan into consideration. Prominent are the Mirror Stage and the Gaze. The Mirror stage consists of the child’s entry into Language. Mirror stage can be a psychoanalytic tool to gauge level of subversion in a text. It’s an analysis of psychological symptoms in a work of literature. Gaze for Lacan has sexual connotations. What kind of gaze is present in a text? Gazes can be feminine, masculine and gay.
Next I would like to take Jung’s theories into account. Jung has classified the psyche into archetypes (personality types). Some archetypes are the Wizard, the Witch, the lover and many more. We can analyze how and why and for what these archetypes are created.

 
Ontological Nebula
Ontology a study of being comes from Existential Philosophy. Here I take the traditional ontology and the ontology created by me into consideration. Traditional Ontology, the one espoused by Sartre and Camus is destructive as it condemns life to be absurd and chaotic. Constructive Ontology created by me states that meaning of being lies in Valueblization (from Value and Realization). We can analyze texts and examine whether texts are favoring destructive ontology or constructive ontology.


Cultural Anatomy

What Cultural Functions does a text serve? For who is the narrative intended? Which cultural institutions are prominent? Is there a culture clash or a culture divide?

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April 18th 2019

April 18, 2019
Morning roared to glory—a fiesta for the senses—grass lay like white pearls—mushrooms chirped— I thank God Jehovah for making my life beautiful.

I was able to complete the Autobiography My Story written by Kamala Das. I also finished another novel: The Tin Drum by Gunter Grass. I have lovely little library with a collection of Books, ranging from Fiction, Philosophy and poetry. Since the school is closed I have no work to do. I am able to idle around like a Sultan.

What is there to write? I wonder at the very statement! How does writing occur? Let’s look at writing from a Freudian point of view. A writer has to balance the ID with Ego and the Super Ego. The ID (the body’s desires) is sensual and erotic and the ego (culture and language assimilated) and the Superego (laws of the society) are to be in balance. In short the writer is an acrobat, tight-rope-walking on these three poles. At an earlier point of time my world view was different. I maintained the view: glorify the ID, deify the ego and subvert the super ego. If one goes according to that worldview there would be chaos and anarchy. Such an anarchic worldview was the one propounded by the existential Philosophers like Sartre and Camus. I have converted their existential nihilism into existential positivism. Let me explain it. An existential positivist has a purpose in being and therefore s/he is a purposist (purpose and ism). Life for Purposist lies in Valueablization (value and realization). Existential positivism is a new post-post modern philosophy with its involvement as constructive positivism. Life for the purposist is no longer the Sisyphus who rolls a boulder uphill only to find that the Gods have rolled it down. Life is no drudgery. Existential positivism belongs to the Philosophy of Value Epistemology. Another theme for Valublelization is Globalization. Globalization has so far taken place in the economic and cultural spheres. The ultimate form of Globalization should be the spread of peace, the abolition of weapons, absence of war and all nations being engaged dialogic compassion. Such a kind of globalization can be called Christablization (Christ and abilization). The Christian ethic of don’t beggar your neighbor but enrich him or her should become a reality. Post Post modernism from an ontological point of view lies in the realm of Value epistemology.

I came across a verse in the Gospel of John: “you can live off his generosity—he will pour a gift, a gift and a gift”. Lord Jehovah Jesus, my finances are running low. Grab a grain full of granary and replenish my purse and my bank account.

Evening passed by with the clouds forming a grey impressionistic canvas. Thunder grumbled and I am waiting for rain to occur.

I was thinking about the Holy Communion. Christ called his disciples and took some bread and broke it and said to them: ‘this is my body so eat it’. He took some wine and said to them: ‘this is my blood and drink it.’ I am wondering if the Holy Communion should be done by the clergy. Should it! My answer is no. Every day I take some bread and water and offer it as libation to Christ the savior.

It was cloudy for a long time. It has started raining now. How beautiful are the wet showers. Rain is pouring gently on the earth. Are they the tears of the sky? Is the sky weeping in joy? If you are tuned to nature you get rid of worries and sorrows of this world. Nature is God’s Gift. The robes of nature are more beautiful than Solomon’s robes.

According to Semitic religions like Judaism and Islam it is customary for males to get circumcised. One Muslim friend of mine told me to get circumcised. I did it for his satisfaction. Am I better off or worse? I don’t know. It was the Apostle Paul who said that the gentiles need not be circumcised.

Elections are round the corner. There are three major parties contesting elections. They are left, the Congress and the far right. The far right want to make India into religious country. The left party is a party with fallen ideals and who won’t get a majority. Which party should a secular person vote for? We should vote for a party promoting liberal, secular ideals.

April 13th

Morning woke me up with a song. The birds chirped happily. Clouds were gay with mirth. I kissed my wife going for exam invigilation. I thank Jehovah Jesus for all the mercies, love and affection.


Understanding the Trinity

The trinity—the Father, Son and Holy Ghost has baffled me for years. Is it a logical fallacy (wrong method of reasoning) of the text? The Trinity is a divine mystery and belongs to the realm of esoteric wisdom. I asked God in prayer for providing me with understanding. Here lies a humble answer. The trinity is one God having three identities. The Father is the Divine: The Son the Human (God made man in his own image) and the spirit being the third person. It was the identity of the Son that came on earth and was crucified for our sins. The mystery is an Enigma and has to be understood with Faith.


Parable of the Neighbor

I am still reading the Gospel of Luke and I came across the Parable of the Neighbor. Once upon a time there was a person. And to his house came guest. There was no food in the house. So the man went to the neighbor’s house and asked for some food. The neighbor said that all are sleeping and beckoned him off. But the man persisted in knocking and finally the reluctant neighbor got up and gave him a loaf of bread. What does Jesus mean by this parable? Be persistent in Prayer and ‘ASK AND YOU SHALL RECEIVE’. Yes God is there to take care of all our material needs. Parable of the Neighbor as Idiom means God providing for all your material needs. Oh God Jehovah Jesus become the Parable of the Neighbor for me.

When Jesus was healing the afflicted: the Pharisees ridiculed him by saying what he is doing is ABRACADBRA, the work of the Devil. Then Jesus answered: Will God drive out God and Will Satan drive out Satan. Will God drive out God is an idiom for Spiritual Logic. We have to have faith that God will not drive out God.
When Jesus spoke among the crowd: a woman cried out: ‘blessed is the womb that carried you and the breasts that nourished you.’ The Jesus replied that: ‘Blessed are the people who obey the word of God’. It is clear that you can’t worship God and Mary. Yes Jesus is condemning all forms of idolatry. Is Mariolatry a blasphemy? The answer is left to intelligence of the reader.

Philosophical Musings
Existential Nihilism adheres to the Philosophy that life is chaotic and absurd. And at the same time: the philosophers contradict by saying that: ‘you have to authenticate your existence’. For me life is neither chaotic nor absurd. Life and being are continually being processed. This processing of life is called processual ontology. For being a Postmodern Existentialist: Life for me lies in VALUBLELIZATION (from value and realization). Again we should live life with a purpose and such a life would be an ideal life and is called as being a life of a purposeist (purpose and ism)

Fictional Philosophy
Again I would like to Fictionalize and Philosophize the meaning of art on to existential ontology. Art has four states: Experiencesy, Catharsis, Angst and Ecstasy.
Experiencesy is the occurrence of daily: we cognize and we also respond to stimuli with our senses. For example: I can taste sugar and know that it is sweet.
Catharsis (For Aristotle meant purification of the soul) is a higher level of experience and involves, thinking feeling and willing. Catharsis is the VALUEBLIIZATION of feeling. For example I am cathartic when I enjoy the beauty and fragrance of a flower.
The Third form of art is angst (the feeling of nausea). Nausea can be physical (the pain of a cancer patient) or mental (like the bereavement of a loved one).
Ecstasy is a pure form of art and enjoys the poetry of the bed. Ecstasy is a pure surrender to the passions of love. Making love is a form of erotic poetry, a music sublime. God has willed that man and woman are one bodily fruit. Ecstasy is God’s Gift.

Philosophical Etymology

Philosophical etymology is the Aesthetization (Aesthetics and realization) of a word with cultural, philosophical and literary meanings. Philosophical Etymology belongs to the realm of Deconstructive Theology. The Guru of deconstruction Jacques Derrida introduced the term binary divide. Binary divide is a process of textual interpretation whereby we can find how texts marginalize and privilege meaning. For example: White is privileged over black and colored. Native English Speakers are privileged over non native speakers for teaching English. From Derrida I have developed a new sign for textuality called Binary Fusion. Binary fusion is inclusive texts. They do not privilege meaning for some people and marginalize meaning for others. Jazz, Blues and Gospel, the divine gift of black culture are a Binary Fusion of being globalized into the Universal culture of music. Indian English having the pride of 50 years of independence should become a Binary Fusion of being accepted as a global language.

Oedipalization/ Phallic Texts/ and Vaginal Texts/
Oedipalization refers to a harmonious personality and the one which not tinged with Freudian complexes, mainly the sexual attachment with father and the mother which is a blasphemy of the psyche. To acquire Oedipalization one must overcome one’s own cultural and social upbringing.
Phallic Texts are texts that dominate the man over the woman. The text which says: language is the domain of man is a phallic text.
Vaginal Texts are texts that balance the feminine with that of the masculine. Examples are s/he wo/man.
Colored psyche floating in the air—you are a copulating Jazz of rhythms—you are gentle loving passionate soul—you are canticle of verses from the bard’s mouth—you are voluptuous litany of prose in marvel.

Autobiographical Musings

I must thank the God All mighty for giving me new thoughts on the art of writing fiction. Ever since 2013 I was searching the right methodology of fiction. Yes, God has said give time for your soul to grow. Yes, the seed which God planted in me has become a ripe fruit of harvest. After I started reading the word of God, I have sent my worries crashing down the hill of pestilence. I sit with a joyful heart. I take joy in the little things of life. I meditate on the word of God day and night. God has blessed my sleep. I am no longer dreaming of childhood traumas. Worldly Philosophies have ruined my life leaving me to have confused worldviews. I now have an inner peace in me, a peace of Christ that the world cannot give me. I am lexi-polygamizing words of the Bible. Lexical Polygamy is a new way, a figurative device of interpreting the scripture. The reader soaks in the richness of the word as food and does not take into account the context. In other words: the reader absorbs the words into life. Life is an existential poetry with God Christ. I have removed all the chains of hate and anger I felt with God. I count on the blessings that have been given by God. I have a beautiful wife and two gorgeous children. God gave me an autistic son who is very special to me. I have a lovely daughter who is doing dental science. God today the 23rd of March has revealed the form, content and style of the novel. I have removed all hatred and bitterness that I have felt for my father. I have forgiven him completely. I have also forgiven my friend Mignonette for all the loose, dejecting thoughts that I have written against her. I regret for having called my mom an old hag. I am thankful to God that he provides me for my daily needs.

The day was a swan in incarnation—a whisper of the soul—radiating outer beauty—sweet buns chirped their daily song of beauty—the Sun made love to light by spreading a wondrous panorama—I soaked in nature’s beauty—God is doing a poetic waltz—a decoration of the feast of the sky in rhythms of poetry—sunshine—you happy soul—how you frolic with lifer—my heart is that of a poet—beatitude of colorful wings are dancing on the flowers—beauty is incarnated everywhere—God, yes divine Christ—love me as your son, as your very own—speak to me in your language—love me every day and bless me with love—nature is a gift so ethereal and kind—a love so tranquil—a mystic adoration—a kaleidoscope of the heart of God—a mystic poem—a song of love—a beatitude—an ornament to delight in—a karma of lights sounds and music—how I love solitudinizing nature—nature now leaving a rhythm of beauty—a hymn so kind—a decorated pastry—a wonderful incantation. This is a narrative in streams of consciousness. I admire James Joyce who was a master of it.

My development as a writer started from the buildungsroman that is autobiographical writings ….and then I proceed to become adept in the kunstlerroman, the aesthetic development of a writer. God has given me a new form, content and style. God has become a creative muse for me.
I have reached 49 years of life and it is now only that I have found Christ the savior. I am learning to love writing for him. I have a version of the Bible called the Message a bible written with allusions and idioms. I love reading it very much. Every day I get new inspirations when I read the Bible. I have started reading with Gospel of ST Mathew. Jesus has taught me the power of words and has told me to use words with caution. Yes words are things and by using them we bring our reality to existence.

It is blog writing that has helped me to evolve my writing. After reading God’s word the thoughts that are coming to me are immense.
What is the soul? It’s a wonder creation by God –a created star of beauty. I am so happy that God has promised me his riches in heaven. I look forward to eternity and living a life with Christ. I am happier in writing the creative words than typing on the keyboard as I am able to focus my thoughts very carefully.

We have to be sensitive to our souls—be happy with our hearts—and be contented with our bodies. God Christ I am so sorry for the sins I have committed in the past. Wash it all away like white snow. Make me a new person with a new body and soul. Dwell in me. Enrich my thoughts with the finesse of language.
Yes God I love you with all my heart and soul. I marvel at the way you overcame Satan’s temptation. You did love mankind that you have given your precious body and blood as an altar for redeeming mankind from sin. You are the true messiah that incarnated. The WORD in you became flesh and blood. I think of the marvelous way you confronted the prostitute and repentant thief. The prostitute washed your feet with luxurious perfume found in the land and the thief on the cross begged for forgiveness. Christianity became a way of life, a celebration with them. We should emulate the life of these saints.
Lord far from the negation of life and treatment of life as the chaotic and the absurd, in you Christ I have found that life is valuable. I follow life as purposeist. Life is valublelization of our souls and bodies. Yes Lord there’s a meaning and purpose in our life. Life of a purposeist lies in valuablelization. This existentialism post modernized.

I have also begun to think of the existentiallization of art? At an existential level art is music with three states called as ecstasy, angst and catharsis. Art in its highest form is praising you and that is ecstasy. The art of making love is catharsis. Bereavement of loved one can be called as angst. The other forms of are art cognition and interpretation. It is the art of making realized meaning. Making love as art is a form of poetic music.

Sometimes in our daily walk of life we forget to appreciate the beautiful, simple things of life. We become clouded by the vanity of our desires. The simple things of life: like watching a new born flower, enjoying the puddles of water that seeps in as rain, watching butterflies dance in the wind, watching lilies and roses sway in the wind, all these are nature’s precious gifts. Yes, we have to celebrate life with nature. Nature is a poem to be sung an art to live. We have to beautify living. Keeping a blog and recording our thoughts is a good thing. We must not be overcome by passionate temptations.

Today I spent all the day thinking, meditating and writing. Today was a meaningful day in my life. I was able to interpret the parables of Jesus, coin new idioms, play with language, and coin new figures of speech. I am able to balance life and language. I am able to harmonize my fictional self with my real self. I feel so happy and contented. From the desert I have traveled to the poetry of an oasis of hope. Literature is my life and I am happy with it.
Lord Jesus I want to travel all over the world and write and travelogues. I don’t have the means for it. This I put to you as a humble prayer. Give me plenty of opportunities to visit strange and exotic places. Help me write all my life. I put this request to you in humble prayer.
Lord I feel sorry for the people who idolize Christianity. I know that true Christianity is not found in idolatry. Lord I feel that we should Christianize Catholicism. I feel sorry for the sheer blasphemy of these people. It is said in the scripture that worship no graven image of any likeness found on the earth or in the sea. Lord let not people make a mockery of religion. It is said in Scripture that you must worship that Lord God Jesus with all your heart and your soul.

For me, I was thinking for a long time to move away from home and my wife and to stay independently. I have learnt to love my wife and the Lord has removed all my desires of wanting a home. Lord it’s my desire to paint and tile the school and also to buy a new vehicle and also to give the teachers a bonus. Lord I hope that you will hear my humble prayer requests. Lord let my pen become a slave for you and flower it to me with love. Christ has said whatever you yes on earth will be a yes in heaven. Lord I am happy that I have started writing for you. I am filled with so much love and so much gratitude. Lord give me the grace to love my wife and my children. Help me not to fall into the snare of the Devil Amen.

Reading Albert Camus’ Rebel from Christian Apologetics

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ravi

(This article is dedicated to the famous and dear Christian Apologist Dr. Ravi Zacharias )

What is a Rebel? Camus contradicts by saying that a rebel is a person who affirms and denies existence. Camus is being vague when he says what is meant to be a rebel? What can we rebel? Why should we rebel? Is it God—the Society—other people?

Again Camus says that rebellion is an assertion of the Ego. Camus forgets that there is the Freudian ID, Ego and Super Ego. ID is the sea of passion what Freud incarnated as the Libido. Ego is the values and culture accumulated from the family and society. Super Ego is the law of the society. I raise my fist at Freud, a left hook for not integrating these states. From Freudian perspective we have to tight-rope-walk on these states to hold it in a balance. Viewed from a Christian perspective we have a consciousness known as CHRISTANONSCIOUNESS in which the balance is kept intact. I would dare to ask Freud the Question did Christ want to separate these states? In Christanonsciousness we are whole beings in Christ.

Camus postulates that man’s solidarity is found in rebellion. What is solidarity? It is the feeling of human oneness and the showing of empathy. How can solidarity be birthed out of rebellion. The Indian freedom struggle birthed out non violence against British imperialism by Mahatma Gandhi was a solidarity revolution. Solidarity bears allegiance to the Christian maxim: Love: your enemy. If your enemy thrashes you on the right cheek, show him also your left one.

Camus reiterates the idea of the Absurd in Rebel. Absurdism derived from nihilism points out that life has no meaning and it is chaotically absurd. Absurdism is self-negating and defeats the very purpose of life. We are living in reality that is being-processed. And that is processual ontology. Processual ontology posits existence to be angstual, cathartic and ecstacyual.
Camus again explains metaphysical rebellion which he defines as a rebellion against God and an utter blasphemy. To be pejoratively speaking, does Camus want whore in front of a Christian altar? From an apologetic viewpoint, Christ as God the Father’s Son came to us as our own being and we did not have to go to him. Man is an emotional being and we simply cannot do away with metaphysics. We can’t calculate the meaning of life in equations. What about the questions of ethics? Ethics and values of the society lie in the metaphysical realm. How can we explain murder, incest, rape and pedophilia? Camus fails to explain how we get our inner-conscience? During the beginning of creation we were made whole and sin has fragmented into the various Freudian psychological states.
Camus is overwhelmingly sympathetic to Sade. Talking from a moral perspective, can Sadism be justified? Is it hunky dory to commit rape, murder, suicide, incest and pedophilia? Even Freud has said that committing these acts won’t lead to the growth of civilization. If we follow Sade’s ingenuous ideas, it will lead to the disintegration of society, and anarchy.

Again Camus goes on to negate Salvation. Sartre the great nihilist and existentialist said that man is condemned to be free. Christ on the other hand said that there is only freedom in me. Both types of freedoms are paradoxical. Christian freedom is a state where your are neither free nor bound. You are in a state of Freeatharsis, coined from freedom and catharsis. Camus philosophy is one of rejectionism. Can an anarchic state where no morals exist be conceived? Is the philosophy each according to his will and each according to his ability be justified? As a Christian apologist, I would like to say we are free to accept Christ and his blood shed on the cross. The human heart has a peculiar ideological symptom and that is the acceptance of Christ. Being in Christ is joy. Death is only physical as far as the body is concerned. The soul and spirit are anchored to Christ. A being’s monumental realization of eternity and eternal life comes with Christ. Let’s look at Christ’s attitude to the prostitute Mary Magdalene. Christ said: ‘sin no more’. ‘Who ever in this crowd has no blemish raise a stone against her’? Christ acted out creative-empathy.
I would like to explain the contours of Camus nihilism. a) It involves the rejection of God and Metaphysics. b) It idealizes anarchy. Being in Christ gives a value, purpose and meaning to life. A Civil society does not exist in anarchy. c) It involves a rebellion with the self. I would like to define the self as an organic—automation, with a free will to choose Christ and be a whole person. The self in this world owing to Adamite sin has to maneuver between ecstasy and angstuality.

Again Camus expostulates Rousseau’s Social Contract. The social contract is a legitimate document for establishing a democratic society. Can the Social Contract be borne out on Nihilism? Why does Camus a self proclaimed Nihilist and Anarchist want to emphasize the Social Contract? Isn’t Camus subversively justifying the need for values in Society? Christian Freedom implies a justice based on responsibility.

I would like to develop an antonym for nihilism and that is purposuality (purpose and reality). A purposist exists in realization of life or in a state of valuableization (valuable and realization). Life is valuablelization derived from value and jubilation.