Conventionalizing Tropes

Conventionalizing tropes is a systemic effort made to categorize tropes which occur in different disciplines of thought.

Tropes can be Literary, Philosophical, Political and Psychological and according to the way in which they are embedded in the sculpture of the text.
What are literary tropes? Literary tropes adorn a poetic form. Here are some examples: The Chirp that floats in air is a serene music. Our love became a blossom of flowers. My tongue is hidden in a poetic garden. Streams murmur a poetic heart. The wind howls in sorrowful misery. My thoughts are a flowing river. Green is the magic carpet enveloping nature. The waves bring forth mirth and laughter. The wind that strikes the cheek is a metaphor. Metaphors gather honey from a beehive. Nature is a lover at heart. What songs of beauty do flowers sing? Rainbow colors the chords of happiness. Angst is a withered plant. Gandhi was an ocean of peace. They clung together like flowers of ecstasy.

What are political tropes? Political tropes express a political theme. Some examples are: Palestine is a hot volcano. The dawn of peace is always in the refugee’s heart. The Indian fanatic party is assassinating democracy, freedom and liberty. UK is the Brexit that failed. We need to clean the Augean stables of corrupt politicians. Jihad is a demon of democracy. The IS is a sword of Damocles. Marx is an ideology that died. The pen is the liberator of democracy. Democracy what an ideal? How much blood has been shed in your name? Contemporary capitalism is rich bacon of a few elites and poor stale bread of the masses.

What are psychological tropes? Psychological tropes are those tropes which express some psychological content. Here are some examples: Narcissism is a poison of the body. Dreams are content of language signified. Hamlet’s killing of his stepfather was based on the oedipal complex. The mirror stage is a booklet to decipher narratives in texts, films and music. Deify the ID, Liberate the Ego and subvert the Super Ego.

What are Philosophical figures of speech? Let’s take Plato’s allegory as an example. There is a dark cave in which there are hordes of people. From the wall of the cave there emanates a shaft of light. The people grapple for the light. What Plato means here is that there is an ideal world of forms, a reality that exists in the Metaphysical world. Let’s take the Philosopher Nietzsche’s theory of art. Art is the salmagundi of the Apollonian and the Dionysian. The Apollonian elements are harmony and melody and the Dionysian elements are rhythm and beat. Art occurs at the confluence of these elements.

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Looking at Foucault through Apologetics

foucault,

Foucault is the most widely read Philosopher belonging to the school of post structuralism. Notorious is his path breaking views known for his inter-disciplinary approach. Sad to say fate got hold of him lock stock and barrel and he became an innocent victim of the dreaded aids.
Here I would like to analyze the thoughts of Foucault from an apologetic point of view.

Foucault makes the assertion that the study of truth is inseparable from History. Let’s look at the statement from a Christian ontological point of view. Jesus is the most famous historical personality known in civilization for his ideologies of love, peace, tolerance and compassion. Jesus as a historical personality forms a realist paradigm of being a referential historical model. His ideology has been abundantly revealed in the gospels. However Christianity goes afar from Historical validation when we come across the divine nature of Christ. The divine nature of Christ is an inseparable mystery. The Philosophy of Christ is enmeshed in CHRISTABILIZATION, a new way of looking at Globalization. So far Globalization has a historicity of being that of economy driven countries. Globalization viewed as CHRISTABILIZATION (Christ and Able) is compassionate theology. There is a dialogic and creative intercourse between nations, a better love of the neighbor, a Greenomics (Green and Economics) for a compassionate and caring environment. The humanity of Christ merges with the divinity and that makes poignant part of History.

The next Foucault perspective calls into an issue the binary divide of madness and sanity. Foucault described madness as alienation produced by the capitalist society. Sanity (reason) is privileged over madness (unreason). Let’s view the life of Christ and his way of looking at madness. Christian approach to madness was one of compassion. It is borne out of the theology of love. When the madman at Gadarene encountered Christ: the legion in him cried out: Son of God why have you come before the appointed time? Jesus admonished the demons and they entered a herd of swine which rushed headlong and plunged into the sea. I would like to ask Foucault whether Madness is a psychiatric symptom. A Christian view holds that madness is cause by malignant demons. A medicinal cure is only partial. A cure of madness made through Christian prayer can be total in healing madness. Asylums now like regimented Prisons should become reservoirs of love and compassion.

Foucault again expounds a compassionate theology in Discipline and Punish wanting prisons to change to institutions of love and tolerance. Foucault criticizes Prisons which renege prisoners into recidivism. Prisoners can be made to do Socially Productive Work and also get their jail spans reduced.
Foucault makes a discourse on knowledge and power. In a postmodern society knowledge is the key to power. Power is both an institution and a concept. As an institution it lies with the government, the police and the big Moguls of industry. As a concept it lies with thinkers and scientists. Power has to become an organism for benefiting all citizens. With increasing surveillance made by the employers on the employees we find a democracy being infiltrated with the pandemic of suspicion.

Foucault’s view on Sexuality is rather idiosyncratic. Foucault claims that we are sexually repressed. This can be called the Foucault complex. Sex is a natural instinct of the body hence it is a valuable artifact. Sex lies beyond the oedipal complex. All come to a knowing of sexuality at puberty. I think that Foucault was confused about his own homosexuality. What does the Bible say about it? ‘They gave over to their lusts: men lying with men and women with women: God gave them over to their reprobate ways.’ Biblically speaking homosexuality is a sin. But again God is compassionate and he is there to forgive and all we need to do is to repent.

Foucault deals with the epistemic rupture that occurred in the 20th century. The major shifts in epistemology were the Darwinian Evolution, the mechanization of medicine, the Big Bang and changes in the structure of language. Does the development of knowledge change our worldviews on Christ? No, not at all! The historicity of Christ is epistemology and the divinity of Christ is biblical.
Foucault in dealing with language develops a fourfold explication of a statement. The statement is Philosophical (Socrates said Know thy self), cultural (Palestine is a hot volcano), and linguistic (all language is made up of signs).

Methods of Literary Criticism

I have discovered some tools for the methodology of literary criticism. They are:
a) Philosophical Etymology
b) Cultural Anatomy
c) Psychological Pharmacology
d) Ontological Nebula

 
Philosophical Etymology
What is philosophical Etymology? Philosophical etymology is a cross examination of literary and cultural meanings in the light of Philosophy. It seeks to give newer shades of meaning to older thoughts. Let’s look at some examples. The school of structuralism coined that all language is made up of signs. A sign consists of the signifier and the signified. The signifier is a visual tangible thing and the signified is an idea. Let’s use an example: I blossomed in her garden. Here blossomed is figurative and an idea and hence it is the signified. Garden forms the signifier.

 
Postmodern Philosopher Derrida developed the idea of Binary Divide. A Binary Divide is a text that privileges some and marginalizes others. Let’s look at an example. It is said in an advert: Wanted only Native Speakers to Teach English. This narrative privileges Native Speakers over English spoken by the colonized people. Using the Binary Divide we can deconstruct texts.

 
From Derrida I have developed an idea called Binary Fusion. Binary fusion is a text that promotes equality. Let’s look at an advert. We do not discriminate people on the basis of gender, color or orientation. This text contains a Binary Fusion. Let’s look at another example. Black Culture, Black Gospel, Jazz and Blues are universally epitomized binary fusions of culture. A literary interpreter can analyze texts and bring out notions of marginalization and privilege and also write a narrative of Binary Fusion.

 
Then comes Kristeva’s texts of the semiotic and the symbolic. A semiotic text omits grammar and punctuation. Such a kind of text can be found in streams of consciousness narratives, in drama, film and music. A symbolic text on the other hand adheres to the strict conventions of language. Doing a literary analysis we can classify texts into semiotic and symbolic elements.

 
Form a Marxian point of view we can analyze texts by looking at class values like the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Do texts privilege the Blue Blood or monitor the interests of the working class. Does the text promote the interests of the Capitalist society? What is the dialectic materialism embedded in the text. This refers to political and historical problems created by Social tremors. The narrator can find out how various social institutions have contributed to the writing of literature.

 
Philosophical Etymology also takes a look at Feminist Theology. Do social, cultural, political and historical institutions promote gender equality and support Feminism. How are the roles of a working mother enacted in s society? Does the intrusion of masculinity affect the reading of texts? To what levels of subversion are meanings of the feminine in a text?

 
Psychological Pharmacology
Psychological Pharmacology looks at the theories of Freud, Lacan and Jung. From Freud we have the three states: ID (passion and the libido), Ego (language and culture assimilated from parents) and Super Ego (the laws of the society). While doing textual interpretation the author can find out how these mechanisms are working in a text. Texts can also be phallic and vaginal that is texts promoting the language of the feminine and the masculine. Is the language of the text phallic or vaginal?
Next I would like to take the theories of Lacan into consideration. Prominent are the Mirror Stage and the Gaze. The Mirror stage consists of the child’s entry into Language. Mirror stage can be a psychoanalytic tool to gauge level of subversion in a text. It’s an analysis of psychological symptoms in a work of literature. Gaze for Lacan has sexual connotations. What kind of gaze is present in a text? Gazes can be feminine, masculine and gay.
Next I would like to take Jung’s theories into account. Jung has classified the psyche into archetypes (personality types). Some archetypes are the Wizard, the Witch, the lover and many more. We can analyze how and why and for what these archetypes are created.

 
Ontological Nebula
Ontology a study of being comes from Existential Philosophy. Here I take the traditional ontology and the ontology created by me into consideration. Traditional Ontology, the one espoused by Sartre and Camus is destructive as it condemns life to be absurd and chaotic. Constructive Ontology created by me states that meaning of being lies in Valueblization (from Value and Realization). We can analyze texts and examine whether texts are favoring destructive ontology or constructive ontology.


Cultural Anatomy

What Cultural Functions does a text serve? For who is the narrative intended? Which cultural institutions are prominent? Is there a culture clash or a culture divide?

April 28th 2019

Morning mushroomed with a canopy of colors—little hymns made divine music—all is beautiful with me. I thank God Jehovah Jesus for his abundant blessings.

It is wonderful to think of how words acquire new cultural meanings with spread of the internet and globalization. A good example of that will be viral, selfie and web.

I am pondering on the art of writing. What could it be? Writing is primarily a narrative. In olden days dissemination was oral. Then there started the writing of texts. There are two types of writing. They are readable writing and interpretative writing.

Readable writing can also be called primary writing. It can be factual or literary. Readable writing is found in discourses like Philosophy, Math and Sciences are examples. Readable writing being literary can be a good story either in speech or in writing. Novels, Poetry, Drama, Films all belong to this genre.

Interpretative writing can be cultural, literary and philosophical. Let me use an example. Let me take the thoughts of structural and post-structural Philosophers.
Let me use an example to understand interpretative reading. Saussure is a famous structural Philosopher who introduced the Sign in Language. All language is made up of Signs. A sign is made up of the signifier and the Signified. A signifier is a visual tangible thing. A signified is an idea. For example if I say dove is peace, dove is the signifier and peace the signified. Then Roland Barthes who used the structuralist Sign to analyze fashions and culture. Philosophically speaking the sign was put into deconstruction by the philosopher Derrida. Deconstruction examines how signs privilege and marginalize people in texts. From Derrida I have developed a new idea of Philosophy called Binary Fusion. Binary Fusion is a text that does not marginalize or privilege anyone.

 

Analysis of Rodin’s Thinker

Thinker_1

I have developed degrees of aesthetic appreciation and they being surface level of meaning, atheistic appreciation and interpretation.
On a Surface Level of meaning we find man with awkward posture, very stiff, very macho.

As an aesthetic artifact we appreciate the fine grandeur of the body resembling ancient Greek Gods, handsome, fierce, quite disturbing for the human eye.

Interpretation can be made culturally and philosophically. The Thinker is an art, defiant one, showing the brilliant triumph of reason, able to cope with any adversity, a superman (Zarathustra) described by Nietzsche, being driven recklessly to celebrate the age of reason and yet being passionate in a poetic way with beauty.

From Transcendental Idealism to Transcendental Realism

It was the famous philosopher Kant in his epoch making work the critique of pure reason who spoke of the sensate (world of the senses) as the Phenomena and the world of ideas or forms as the Noumena.

From the Kantian idea of Transcendental Idealism I have developed the idea of transcendental realism.

Kant’s theorization bifurcates a priori knowledge or deductive knowledge with a posteriori knowledge or inductive knowledge. Deductive knowledge is reasoning from a general premise to a particular one. For example: All Men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal. Inductive knowledge is a posteriori and it is from the particular to the general. For example: Sugar dissolves in water is particular knowledge and from that understand that it is a general law.

I have merged both deductive (a priori) knowledge with inductive (a posteriori) knowledge. Ideas are permanent and we come to know through the senses for all cognition concepts. Kantian classification of intuition is rather vague. What Kant meant by intuition was a way of knowing. But a human being is a thinking, feeling and willing being. We have to be reminded that a being is thinking, feeling and willing anthrop. My argument is that ideas or forms are eternal and that’s a Platonic View. With that I endorse a Worldview Known as the Coigna which merges Kant’s transcendental idealism with my transcendental realism.

Value Epistemology

The author has developed a new branch of Philosophy called Value Epistemology. Value epistemology belongs to the realm of Compassionate theology. There are four modes of existence for this Philosophy and they being: Philosophical Etymology, Ontological Valuebleization, Christablization, Dialectical Humanistic Materialism, and the last being psychic compassion.

Philosophical Etymology
Cultural Construction or Binary Fusion
What is Philosophical Etymology? It is the art and craft of giving newer meanings to older words. The change of meaning is cultural and Philosophical. It was from Derrida’s deconstructive theology of Binary Divide that I have developed this philosophy. Binary Divide shows how marginalization and privilege occur in texts. For example: White privileged over black, the occident is privileged over the occident. From Binary Divide I have introduced Cultural Construction or Binary Fusion. For Example: Black was once upon a time denigrated and dehumanized. Now Black has become a symbol of pride. Black theology, Black Music, Black Literature, Jazz and Blues all have become universalized as Binary Fusions. Indian English is globalized and hybridized as an accepted norm of being Binary Fusion.
Ontological Valuablelization
The next thought of Value Epistemology is Ontological Valublelization. Here I am make a detour from Sartre’s and Camus’ existential nihilism. Nihilism states that life is absurd and chaotic. Camus talks of the myth of the Sisyphus where the Gods condemn Sisyphus to roll a boulder uphill only to find that it rolls down and Sisyphus is forced to repeat this meaningless task. Ontological Valueblelization (from Value and Realization) on other hand states that each individual has a value and purpose and such an individual is called as a Purposeist. There are three states of ontological existence and they being Catharsis, Angst and Ecstasy. Even if the individual is facing angst s/he can have positive frame of mind.
ChristAbilization
ChristAbilization (Christ and Able) is a new term for Globalization. So far globalization has occurred only in the economic sphere. It should spread to other areas like culture and the environment. Christablization includes the absence of war, a dialogic diplomacy, equitable sharing of resources and a compassion to treat the environment with care
Dialectical Materialistic Humanism
Dialectical Materialistic Humanism refers to a dialogical value laden approach to society, culture and economy. Economies should be driven by the gospel of compassion. This philosophy encompasses the Kingdom of God on earth, society based on truth, justice and liberty. The poor should be given a chance to improve themselves. Trade rivalry should be settled amicably.
Psychic Compassion or Mother Teresa Complex
Psychic compassion or Mother Teresa complex involves a harmonious relationship with other, and also the desire to help the needy.