India has a tropical Monsoon Climate
Factors affecting Climate
Altitude: Temperature decreases with increase in height due to the normal lapse rate. Hill stations have a cooler climate
Climatic Barrier or Climatic Divide
The Himalayas act as a Climatic barrier. They prevent the cold winds of central Asia from entering India and also block the monsoon winds from leaving India.
The windward side of the Western Ghats receives more rain than the leeward side as winds have lot of moisture and lose their moisture when they enter the leeward side. The leeward side is called the rain-shadow. Mumbai gets more rain than Pune.
The Aravallis are lying parallel to the direction of the South West monsoon winds and therefore Rajasthan and the Thar Desert is a region of the rain shadow.
Meghalaya lies on the foothills of the Gharo Kasi Jaintya hills and receives more rainfall and it is called the windward side of the mountain.
Distance from the Sea
The Sea moderates the climate of the place. Places lying near the sea have a moderate climate. Places lying interior have an extreme climate. Winters are very cold and summers are very hot.
Western Disturbances are temperate cyclones originating in the Mediterranean Sea. The enter India and give rainfall to Punjab and Western Uttar Pradesh in winter.
Jet Streams are upper air circulations and they herald the onset of the monsoon.
Four Seasons Summer Season Season of the South West Monsoon, Season of the Retreating Monsoon, Winter Season
Loo Hot winds called Loo originate in the plains of India and they can cause sunstroke.
KalBaisakhi Norwesters are thunder showers and storms originating in the Assam and West Bengal. Beneficial for growing Jute
Mango showers are summer rainfall occurring in the Southern parts of India. They are beneficial for coffee.
The Sea has high pressure and the land low pressure.
The Season of the South West Monsoon
The Season of the South West Monsoon brings rain to India. There are two branches of the South West Monsoon, the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch.
Major difference : Arabian Sea Branch gives rain only in India. More in Volume
Bay of Bengal Branch divides into two, one branch enters the North East and other goes to Myanmar. Lesser in Quantity.
The Season of the Retreating Monsoon
Pressure conditions change. The sea is warmer and has low pressure. Land has high pressure.
The retreating monsoon brings rainfall to coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
The Cold Season
The Cold Season begins. Temperate Cyclonic disturbances occur in the Bay of Bengal and winds blow from the Sea to the Coast of Tamil Nadu and Bangladesh giving rainfall there.
Formation of Soil known as Pedogenesis
Is known as Ex-Situ or transported Soil. Brought down by the rivers. Two types—Kadar and Bangar. Kadar more fertile sandy. Bangar old alluvium less fertile.
Rich in Potash (POT and Ash) Poor in Nitrogen (Night and Trojan)
Suitable for growing rice and wheat
Known as In-Situ Soil or formed in the place of origin (also called Residual soils). Formed by volcanic lava spread.
Hold Moisture. Develops cracks during the dry season.
Good for growing Tobacco and Sugar Cane
Formed by the Weathering of ancient crystalline metamorphic rocks.
Rich in Iron. Poor in Nitrogen (Night and Trojan) Needs fertilizers
Millets pulses and fruits can be grown
Formed by leaching, that is washing away of the top soil by rain.
Cannot retain moisture. Poor in Potash (Pot and Ash)
Tea coffee and Rubber are grown.
Washing away of the top soil called as Sheet Erosion.
Grooves are cuts formed in the land are called as Rill erosion
Cuts in the land develop into Gullies and is called Gully erosion.
Methods to Conserve Soil
Afforestation: Planting of more trees
Prevention of overgrazing
Ploughing along the slopes of the land.
Terracing of slopes.
Rainfall more than 200 CMS. (2 Victory, Zero Cipher Cipher) , Temperature 25 to 27 degrees (To5 To Sabbath) , Trees rise above 50 mts. Canopied structure.
Rosewood Furniture (Rose and Wood), Cinchona Medicine (Synch KO NA)
Rain 100 CMS. (Century)
Temperature (27 to 32) (ToandSabbath(holyday) 32 reverse 23)
Sandalwood Perfumes and handicrafts
Teak used for furniture.
Commercially and Economically the most important natural vegetation because of Sandal Wood
Trees have special breathing roots called pneumatophores. Trees are submerged during high tide.
Sundari tree used for making boats.
Agar tree used for treatment of Cancer.
Found in High altitudes 1500 Mt, to 3000 Mt. Trees are evergreen
Pine for furniture
Deodar used for aromatherapy
Need to conserve Forests
Preserving the natural habitat and biomes
To control global warming.
Agro Forestry Planting of trees and crops on the same land.
Need to Conserve Water
Water is a diminishing Resource
Population is increasing more water is needed.
Irrigation The systematic application of water for agriculture.
Lined Unlined and Tube Wells.
Advantages Easy to make and Cheap
Disadvantages dry up quickly. Tube wells need lot of electricity
Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan
Inundation Canals dug during the rainy season.
Perennial Canals Have water in them throughout the year.
Advantages Irrigate large areas of land. Easy availability of water for farmers.
Disadvantages Expensive. Water Logging
Advantages: Easy and Cheap to make. Can store rainwater.
Disadvantages: Dry up during summer. Occupies large area.
Tank Irrigation in the Deccan
Rocks are non porous
The land is undulating
Popular in the Deccan
Dams having more than one purpose. Like hydroelectricity and tourism.
Hematitie Magnetite Limonite and Siderite
Iron used to make steel and railway coaches
Odisha: Sundargarh (Beautiful House) Mayurbunch (May UR Bunch)
Goa: Bicholim (Bitch All IM) Sattari (SAT ARI)
Chattisgarh Bailadila (Bail Heart) RajHara (Raja Hara)
Jarkhand Singbum (Sing BUM) Ranchi (Tatti kundu Pawai)
Karnataka Chitradurga (Chitra Durga) KudreMukh (Could Re MuKum)
Also called as Black Gold used for the generation of Thermal electricity and also for smelting iron ore. Also used for cooking
Anthracite Bituminous Lignite Peat
Jarkhand: Jayharia (Jay Hariya) Bokaro (Bow Karo)
Odisha: Sundargarh (Beautiful House) Talcher (Talam Cher [dirt])
Chattisgrah Tatapani (Tata Water) Koragarh (Chorus House)
Bengal Burdwan (Bird Wan) Bankura (Bank Kura)
Andhrapradesh Warangal (Wrathathu angal) Adilabad (Ah Dil [heart] Bad)
Used for the production petrol diesel and natural gas.
IOC Indian OIL Corporation BP Bharat Petroleum
Refineries are located near to ports because it is easy to transport them and refine them
India needs to import crude oil because it does not produce enough.
Assam Digboy (Dig BOY) Nakarkattiya (Nakku Kattu ya)
Arunachalpradesh Manabhum (Mana [power] BUM) Charali (CharaL LI)
Mumbai High Bassein (Bass IN)
Used for paints and glasses
Found in MP Odisha
Main raw material for Aluminum Use for making airplanes and vessels.
Found in Odisha and Gujarat
Used for making rain-gauges and electronic systems for rockets.
Found in Rajasthan and MP
Advantages of Non Conventional Energy
They do not exhaust They are cheap and eco-friendly
Types Biogas Solar Wind Tidal Nuclear
Shifting/slash and burn/ Jhumming: Not eco-friendly. A patch of land is set fire and tribals cultivate from its ashes. Once soil is infertile leave the land
Subsistence Farming for one’s own needs.
Intensive Technology and labor is available in greater proportion to land.
Extensive Land is available in greater proportion to technology and labor
Mixed Animals and poultry are reared along with crops.
Plantation Crops like tea coffee and sugarcane are grown in plantations.
Indian agriculture is mixed intensive
Kharif Starts with the beginning of the monsoon. Main crop Rice
Rabi Starts with the winter. Main crop Wheat
Zayad Starts during April May Fruits are grown.
Reasons for low productivity
Farmers are not educated
They do not use HYV high yielding variety of seeds.
Temperature: 18 to 32 (18 number of the beast 6+6+6 32 Psalm 23)
Rainfall 150 to 300 (15 Magic square and zero 300 Father Son and Holy Ghost two Zeros)
Methods of Cultivation
Broadcasting Scattering the seeds on the ground.
Dibbling Dropping the seeds at regular intervals.
Drilling Using a drill to drop the seeds
Transplantation Sowing the seeds in nurseries and then transplanting on to the fields.
Japonica Japanese Method of Cultivation Using of HVY High Yielding Varieties of Seeds. Planting in Nurseries. Transplanting on to fields. Plenty of water used.
Rice grown Haryana Madhya Pradesh
Temp: 10 to 15 10 (1 and Zero) 15 (Magic Square) While sowing
25 to 28 while harvesting (to5 and to8)
Rainfall 50 to 100 (Half a century and Century)
Soil Clayey Loamy
Main areas UP Punjab
Millets are drought resistant crops and can be grown on any type of soil. Jowar Bajra and Ragi are the chief millets. They are used as food and fodder.
Pluses are leguminous crops and help in nitrogen fixation so they are rotated. Pulses are valuable source of proteins for North Indians as they are vegetarians.
Urad Moong Peas and Gram are the major pulses.
MP and UP are the main cultivated areas.
Methods of cultivation
Setts method The cane is cut into two or three joints and cultivated.
Ratoon After harvesting the lower part and roots are left to grow. This is then planted again.
Sugar, Molasses used to make alcohol Pressmud used to make polish Bagasse Used to make paper.
Areas UP Bihar
Why is Sugarcane Cultivation shifting to the South?
South has a more humid climate as winter is harmful for the crop.
South has developed institutes for research and development of sugarcane.
Used to make butter and also used for cooking. Kharif and Rabi Crop.
Areas Gujarat and TN
Used as medicine and for cooking
Areas Rajasthan and Haryana
Rapeseed Used to make Bio Diesel Animal Feed.
Areas Rajasthan Haryana
Used for medicine and for cooking. World’s largest producer.
Areas Odisha and Rajasthan
Kharif and Rabi crop Used to make engine oils or lubricants for automobiles.
Areas Andhrapradesh Rajasthan
Flax is obtained from Linseed. Used to make clothing.
Areas MP and UP
Used for making cloth Oil is used as cattle feed.
Ginning Separation of the seed from the Fiber.
Areas Maharashtra and Gujarat
Known as Golden Fiber. Used to make Gunny bags.
Retting: The Jute bundles are immersed in water so that fiber can easily be removed.
Why Bengal is the leading Producer
Suitable humid climate Cheap Labor.
Green tea and Black Tea.
Earns foreign exchange
Clones of a superior plant are taken and planted to yield better varieties.
Done to reduce moisture. Leaves are spread on racks.
Done to give tea its taste. Leaves are passed in between rollers
Tanin in tea is oxidized
Drying or Firing
Leaves are put on conveyor belt and heated.
Tea leaves are sorted according to their size.
Tea is tested for its taste.
Areas Assam Kerala TN
Varieties Arabica Robusta Liberica
Wet Parchment Method
The beans are run through a series of washing and fermenting
Dry Native Method
Berries are dried in the sun to remove their outer covering.
Areas Kerala TN
Used to make tires and tubes.
Latex: Milk obtained from the rubber tree.
A bud of a superior plant is attached to another plant.
Tapping The process of collecting the latex from the rubber tree.
Vulcanization Adding of Asetic Acid to the latex and hardening it into rubber.
Large Scale: Uses a large amt. of capital
Medium Scale: Uses capital smaller than large scale
Small Scale: Uses only a small amt. of capital
Private Sector: Run by private individuals (reliance)
Public Sector: Run by the Govt. (Indian Oil)
Joint Sector: Run by govt. and private sector (Gujarat State Fertilizer Company)
Cooperative Sector: Run by the workers (Indian Coffee House)
Agro Industries: Uses agro products to make finished good. Example: Mango Pulp to Mango Juice
Mineral based Industries: Uses minerals to make finished goods. Example: Iron ore to make steel
Forest Based Industries: Uses forest products to make finished goods. Honey
Cottage Industries Goods are made in cottages. Example Handicrafts
Consumer Industries Goods are made for consumers. Example Computers and TV’s
Basic and Key Industry Industry whose products are essential for building infrastructure. Example Steel to make Bridges.
Footloose Industries Industry that can be located anywhere in the world. Examples Garments or clothes
Areas Maharashtra Mumbai
Why located in Mahraraashtra
Humid climate Plenty of power
Old technology Competition from foreign markets
Employs a lot of people Earns foreign exchange
Areas: Bengal Hubli Rishra
Why Jute Industry located in Bengal
Availability of raw material Easy obtainment of power
Lack of raw material Foreign competition
Areas Punjab Haryana
Why Woolen Textiles located in the North
Has the cold season so woolen clothes are needed Plenty of Cheap Labor
Types Eri Tassar Muga(artificial)
Major area Karnataka
Why Silk is located in Karnataka ?
Humid Climate Presence of skilled workers
Sugar Industry (All said in agriculture)
Iron and Steel
Integrated and Mini Steel Plants
Integrated steel plants use a larger amt. of capital and all the processes of production take place in one area.
A mini steel plant has lower capital investment and processes of production do not take place in one area.
TISCO Tata Iron and Steel
Oldest. (Jakrkhand) Started by Jamshedji Tata. (Private Sector)
Water from the Subarnarekha River.
Power from Damodar Valley Corporation
In Chattisgarh (Durg). Started with the help of Soviet Union.
Coal from Jaharia (Jay Hari Ya)
Power from Korba Thermal Power Corporation
Situated in Sundergarh ( Beautiful House) in Odisha. Started with the help of West German Firm.
Coal from Jahariya (Jay hari Ya)
Easy port facility from Kolkotta
Vishakapattanam Steel Plant
Power available from Gujuwaka
Port facility for export.
Problems of Steel Industry
Outdated technology Low productivity
Petrochemical industries are those whose products are the byproducts of petroleum industries
Union Carbide Trombay
IPCL Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited
Cheap to make. Easily available.
Pollutes the environment Produces hazardous substances
Cell phones, Computers and TV’s are examples of some products of the electronics industry.
Areas Bangalore Chennai Kolkotta
Why India is becoming a hub of electronics
India has a huge consumer force
Production costs are low in India
Easy to construct Can be made in hilly areas
Poor condition of roads Contributes to pollution
The North South corridor linking Jammu with Kanyakumari and the East West Corridor linking Silcher in Assam with Porbander in Gujarat.
Cheap as owned by the Govt. of India
Can transport a large number of people.
Very expensive to construct.
Considerable amt. of electricity is wasted.
Can connect remote islands of India like the Lakshwadeep.
Lack of enough boats. Poorly developed technology.
Important Water Ways
Ganga Bramaputra West Coast Canal Champakara Canal
Ports of India Kandla Mumbai Marmagao Chennai Kochi New Mangalore Vishakapattanam Tuticorian Paradip Kolkotta Haldia
Helpful to people during natural disasters as army can rescue and airlift food and people
All people cannot afford it. Contributes to pollution.
9. Waste Management
Waste is defined as anything that pollutes the environment and it can be solid, liquid, gas or radioactive substances.
Classification of Waste
Any waste that decomposes into the environment. Examples are fruits, vegetables, cloth etc.
Waste that does not decompose into the environment. Examples are oil spill, radioactive waste, plastic etc.
Comes from the burning of coal and petroleum. Causes breathlessness, dizziness.
Carbon Monoxide coming from the burning of fuels if inhaled in large amounts can lead to death. It contributes to slow poisoning
Methane the ingredient of natural gas can cause affection in the lungs.
Effect of Solid waste
Solid Waste can contribute to the spread of infectious diseases cholera, malaria and diarrhea.
Effect of water Pollution
Water pollution contributes to typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and various other diseases.
Effect of Mining and Industrial Waste
Industrial pollution can lead to global warming. Water can be contaminated with sludge. Disposal of industrial wastes as landfills is a serious problem.
Minamata disease was discovered in Japan caused to due to the discharge of ethyl mercury.
Effects of Oil Spill
Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters, and the water repellency of a bird’s feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh elements. Without the ability to repel water and insulate from the cold water, birds and mammals will die from hypothermia.
Is the collection transport recycling and disposal of waste materials.
Solid waste disposal
Segregation is the separation of waste into different categories. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes are sorted out.
Dumping is the act of depositing waste in one area.
Organic matter is recycled with the help of composting.
3rs of waste management
Reduce Reuse and Recycle.